The USPTO Registered Logo Badge of the Medical Marijuana Initiative of North America - International Limited, an Arizona Benefit Corporation to the left of Mt Hood sunlit from the northwest in June followed by the proprietary MMINAIL octocopter delivery bot.

Forex Pairs

Welcome! This is the Forex Lesson - Forex Pairs page of the MMINAIL.

Operational Hedging

In America, as the USD appreciates, some companies within certain industries are affected negatively to the point their stock prices fall.

While still others are affected oppositely, their stocks go up right along with the dollar appreciation!

Market Beta

This correlation can be deduced as a dance between a company's market beta and its forex beta, or its propensity to change relative to the Standard and Poors 500 Index, or SPX and the Dow Jones FXCM Dollar Exchange Index, or US DOLLAR respectively.

For example, tobacco companies grow and manufacture their product here in the United States and then sell a great share of their product internationally where the demand for tobacco products has not been so tamped down by anti-smoking rhetoric.

Because tobacco processing and sales is such an old, stodgy industry ... The stock of companies engaged in the manufacture of cigarettes, for example, move at a more stable rate than the Standard and Poors 500 Index.

As a consequence, their market betas have been traditionally less than one ( β < 1.0 )

Forex Beta

However, because of their international sales, when repatriating their efforts ...

The tobacco companies must convert from the local currency of sale, back into USD.

And, when the American dollar strengthens, most other currencies weaken to various degrees thus clipping the expected take when converting back to USD.

On the other hand, the Forex beta of a domestic American tobacco company may be negative, thus denoting an adverse change in stock price whenever the American dollar appreciates.

Translation Exposure

Why is this so?

Because the less number of expected American dollars (USD) received upon conversion of the underlying currency will depress the operating earnings of an international division extracting sales from a foreign country upon translation.

This form of exposure to the currency markets is called Translation Exposure and represents the phenomenon when translating earnings from one foreign subsidiary back into American dollars (USD), the risk of receiving less USD than expected is real.

The Donald and the Ford

Why then did Ford stop plans to open up a new $1.6 billion (USD), or ₱35.2 billion (MXN) assembly plant in Mexico ...?

Was it because Trump said so?

The short answer is "No!" ...

But, Trump's rhetoric started the "sell-a-thon" in Mexican pesos which led to Ford's decision to defer until a later point in time when the currency has settled.

Enter the Peso MXN

Mexico is a relatively small international market yet the people of Mexico purchase approximately nine-percent ( 9% ) of all U.S. exports of goods and services, one-half ( 1/2 ) of which originate in Texas.

Oh! Sorry!

Trump didn't tell you all Texicans that he was gonna mess with your honey pot, too?

Well, he is ... and, already has!

So, the $64 dollar question is "Can the prices of those goods and services be raised in MXN to compensate for the increase in value of the USD?"

If you as an American exporter to Mexico were expecting to receive $100 USD for your goods or services ... But, instead are now receiving back $60 - $65 USD because of the MXN currency decline ( for the same amount of pesos bargained ), can you then raise your prices in MXN to compensate for your loss in USD?

Elastic vs Inelastic Demand

The good news is that the demand for unique products tends to be highly inelastic, or price insensitive.

Thus, a company that produces a unique product should be able to raise its prices in terms of the now declining MXN to compensate for the change in currency value experienced by a now stronger "greenback", or USD.

This act, however, may invite competitors to enter the market long term, but over the short term, losses can be trimmed without too much risk to the volume of units moved ... By simply increasing the price of your goods denominated in Mexican pesos.

Woe unto the Mexican consumer, however, if you do this because now the Mexican consumer is experiencing price inflation.

Greater Wages

To compensate, the Mexican consumer will have to demand greater wages to maintain their standard of living.

This is a classic "price - wage" inflation cycle and is being practiced by the new Trump administration even prior to his inauguration.

If your product is not inelastic, but rather elastic ... That is to say ... Volumes of units tend to be very sensitive to the price you charge, up or down ... as in eggs and chickens ...

Then, you as an American producer selling your product in Mexico will not be able to raise the price of your product in MXN without dually causing thoughts of disintermediation within the minds of the consumers of your product.

Regardless of whether or not those consumers are Mexican, or Mexican - American ... You will also be inviting the Mexican competition to eat your market share while the currency advantage is theirs!

The Market For Autos

The market for automobiles is highly refractive causing price to be quite the sensitive item when consumers consider the purchase of "like" vehicles.

One way a company can hedge against currency fluctuations outside of its native country of domicile is to hedge operationally.

In the past, under the effects of the NAFTA paradigm, relocating (replacing) employees and manufacturing and research sites may have been a practical and cost-effective way of dealing with exchange-rate exposure long term.

Today, however, another variable exists.

When the President-elect of the United States is threatening to slap a 1928 style 25% Tariff tax on ANY automobile manufactured in Mexico that attempts to be sold back into the American market going forward, the nature of fiat money as it is will move the currency in that direction.

While costs associated with the assembly of a product may be denominated in the falling peso, a great lion's share of the parts do come from manufacturing facilities in the United States and elsewhere besides Mexico.

Hence, the equation becomes one of the present value of the initial investment and the components priced in MXN less the present value of the now Tariff taxed revenues received in America along with the components priced in USD.

There is also a possibility, however remote, that the underlying property and the finished factory may actually appreciate in terms of the MXN when the dollar strenthens, thus mitigating the effects of any exchange currency decline.

The idea is that ever cheaper pesos will invite buyers who will then bid up the price of factories and other forms of operational real estate to counter the decline of the MXN on the FOREX exchange.

However, given the uncertainty of where the Mexican peso will land "this time" based on where it landed in 1993 - 1994 during that two-week round of market restructuring at the dawn of NAFTA ( -37% ), Ford simply decided to delay action until the currency has become settled.

Indirectly, yes ...In these times of "fiat" money, Trump and the GOP through their rhetoric may be to blame for this pre-mature move downward in the MXN.

For sure, consumers in America will now have less choice going forward favoring only foreign and domestic factories that have set up assembly in America.

Unless, of course, American consumers can continue to cross the southern border without restriction to take advantage of the now lower peso.

As long as the new administration does not add an additional duty upon American consumers when attempting to repatriate themselves and their new found goods back into the United States, the decline in the MXN may have a silver lining.

Dental work, for example, a service with components priced in pesos should be lower now in Algodones, MX.

Directions. Drive about 5 miles east of the Arizona - California border on Interstate 8 out of Yuma, then turn south towards the California border crossing with Mexico in Winterhaven, CA by taking Exit 166 south at the Algodones Rd. - Quechan Tribe Casino Exit.

Americans crossing the border to improve their smiles ... Though hassled by the US Border Patrol on the way back in, currently have to declare "No Duty"" on simple purchases of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals prescribed by Mexican dentists and purchased from reputable Mexican pharmacies across the border while getting their dental work performed.

Nor does a duty currently exist on the new crowns placed on American teeth by Mexican dentists.

But, other products flowing back into America through more direct routes, such as automobiles manufactured in Mexico, may not be so lucky.

Protective Tariffs

The act of setting up preventive Tariffs on products entering the United States from abroad can either firm prices domestically ... Or, the more likely scenario ... The slapping of Tariffs on imported goods will allow American manufacturers to raise their prices domestically.

The economy of Mexico may not falter from ONE less company requesting the purchase of Mexican pesos to fund their property acquisitions in Mexico pulls out.

But, a dearth of foreign direct investment into Mexico will put a damper on the prospects for further Mexican economic prosperity.

Still, the ongoing costs that can be denominated in cheaper pesos i.e.) the final assembly of a product destined for the American market chock full of Mexican made components may get a boost from the lower peso when priced competitively in the United States sans Tariff.

Selling Breeds More Selling Until Exhaustion

From the old trading range ( exchange ratio ) of ten to fifteen pesos per dollar ( 10 - 15:1 ) after the financial crash of #2008 to the new year #2017 "distressed" twenty-two to one ( 22:1 ) exchange ratio stemming from the general election of the New Yorker Donald Trump in November of #2016, this is no time to try to "bottom fish" the MXN.

Alternatively, Ford could try to borrow money from Mexican banks denominated in Mexican pesos at the going borrowing rate to hedge any property - factory investments by repaying the debt with every cheaper pesos.

As a result of the FOREX selling spree in MXN and the lack of any super-intervention in the marketplace by the Federal Reserve Bank of Mexico, there are plenty of pesos to lend at the going rate.

But, the threat of taxing sales imported to the American market via a repugnant 25% Tariff in USD ...

Would place a greater percentage of projected vehicle ownership in the hands of Mexican consumers who are already experiencing the new paradigm of the declining peso.

Not a very comforting outlook to the central planners at Ford when contemplating American consumer purchases of their Mexican produced vehicles.

Thus, in order to justify the construction of another plant in Mexico today without projected sales to American consumers, a more local flavor to the decision by Ford to discard rather than venture further prevails.

Factoring in the effect of the "price - wage" inflation pull upon the Mexican consumer now that any good or service imported from America costs an additional thirty-two percent (32%) in market adjusted Mexican pesos ...

Such as an American made Ford Mustang ...

Will tend to restrict purchases, rather than ameliorate trade ie.) make something bad or unsatisfactory better.

Questions Unanswered

Meanwhile ... On the other side, "El otra lado" ... In America ... The effect of "cost deflation" upon the American manufacturer that sources Mexican components imported from Mexico ( sans the proposed 25% Tariff tax ) will allow fatter profits to flow to the American manufacturer currently without any boost in real price needed.

Is this the way President Trump plans to extract his alternative tax of $10 billion USD to build his wall along the Mexican - American southern border?

What is the magnitude of the capability of the Federal Reserve Bank of Mexico when intervening to support the price of the peso ( MXN ) from falling further?

Your forking of this page to add additional insight to this topic is greatly appreciated.

Simply download this repo to your desktop, make your changes, and forward a pull request via GitHub.

I'll review your changes, add your work to the page if agreeable, and cite your contribution.

If you would like to donate in other ways, please follow the following hyperlink.

Thank you in advance for your contribution to the Carbon Free Footprint Project.

Forex Disclaimers

Futures and Options trading have large potential rewards. But, at the same time ... also large potential risk.

Dear Reader:

You must be aware of the risks and be willing to accept them in order to invest in the futures and options markets.

Please DO NOT trade with money you cannot afford to lose.

This disclaimer is neither a solicitation, nor an offer to Buy or Sell futures, stocks, or options on the same.

No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to those discussed in this document, if any.

Note. The past performance of any trading system or methodology is not necessarily indicative of future results.

CFTC Rule 4.41

Hypothetical or simulated performance results have certain limitations.

Unlike an actual performance record, simulated results do not represent actual trading.

Also, because the trades have not actually been executed, the results may have under-or-over compensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity.

Simulated trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight.

No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profit or losses similar to those shown.

jQuery Library

Note. This page has explicit access to the local jQuery library as well as a local complimentary working (.js) file.

More to come ...

Sources and Uses

The source and use of 3rd party materials in the creation of this Html page is greatly appreciated.

Most authors and publishers will allow for the abbreviated reproduction of their works in part.

Especially when the case of brief quotations or ideas embodied in critical articles or reviews becomes necessary to further the understanding of the end-user's learning process.

When an effort to subsequently help clarify the original thoughts the author is attempting to convey becomes manifest, a ping-back to the original source(s) is welcome by the readers, the authors, and the publishers of instructional hard copies.

Therefore, it is the policy of the MMINAIL to always provide a Ping Back to the original author, or to the publisher of the original publication when citing 3rd party work.

Note. Please support the co-workers who aggregate the Source Links for our projects.

Quote: "The best way to get an industry to collapse in on itself in a capitalist society is to take away its potential for profit!" ~ Robert Hempaz, PhD Trichometry

Thank you for your contribution.

The Management

The USPTO Registered Logo Badge of the Medical Marijuana Initiative of North America - International Limited, an Arizona Benefit Corporation

External Sources

Supporting Content Small The Flammarion Logo Badge Small The Flammarion Logo Badge

Welcome! This is the Supporting Content section for the Forex Lesson page of the MMINAIL.

The Concept Library of the MMINAIL is a static informational website.

As such, a Supporting Content section is placed below each (.html) page in the flow of the default layout to grant the end-user additional pertinent information when navigating this site.

E Books

With today's explosion of modern devices ...

Some consumers like to read their articles on their Kindles or iPads.

Therefore, a method to convert any page of this website into an eBook ...

Is auto-built into the top of the Navigation <aside> ...

As well as in the <footer> of every page.

Dot ePub

Simply click the following eBook icon = small dot epub button eBook icon to render the current page as an Overdrive (.epub) or a FB Reader (.mobi) .

Apple iBooks

The Apple iBooks platform also reads and displays the (.epub) format, as well.

When navigating the menu at the Navigation <aside> ...

Look for the book icon to download the offered eBook directly to your machine.

Then, simply right-click over the newly downloaded (.epub) and open up the file in the new Book app for Mac devices.

Secure Hyperlinks

The A's Have It!

In today's complicated world of coding, even the use of the standard hyperlink ...

<a href="" title="" target=""></a>

Is placed into question by the standards of newer, more modern browsers such as Google's V8 powered Chrome browser.

Safe Internal Links

Therefore, to make life easy for the end-user ...

The MMINAIL will show safe, internal links in the bootstrap default color of light dodger blue.

Safe External Links

In addition, safe external links ...

When designated https secure ie.) https://.

Will also be shown in the color of light dodger blue.

Standard External Links

All other external links ...

If designated with standard http ie.) http:// ...

Will be shown in the color of indian red.

How To Navigate This Website

At this website ...

We have the <html> hub for the Benefit Corp aka our Concepts Library.

You (Usted), as a current visitor to our Concepts Library, are now at the Forex Lesson page.

Navigation Aside

In the Navigation <aside> section of this website ...  ...

The end-user will find a Stack of Topics.

Or, for you smartphone users ... the Navigation <aside> section is up! ...  

There, the smartphone user will find the same Stack of Topics for the Concepts Library at MMINAIL.

Stack O Topics

The Navigation <aside> section to your right ... ... If you are viewing this page from the traditional landscape style of your laptop.

Or, the Navigation <aside> section from above ... ... If you are viewing this page from the modern portrait style of your smartphone ...

Both house the same Stack of Topics available for selection at the Concepts Library of the MMINAIL.

Instruction Set

To access one of the Articles or Lessons available for your preferred Topic of Interest ...

  • Simply scroll through the tabs of Topics above, or to the side ...

  • And, click on one that you may have an interest in.

Back Home

Note. At each Topic of Interest, the end-user will find a hyperlink back to the Home page of the Concepts Library.

By clicking on the Home icon   the end-user will be returned to the Home page of the Concepts Library.


When an end-user clicks on a Topic of Interest ...

Either above  ...

Or, over at  ...

The Stack of Topics in the Navigation <aside> section ...

The menu explodes vertically to reveal several subtopical choices.

To select any other Topic of Interest, or any of the many subtitles ...

  • Simply click on the corresponding glyphicon to open up the referenced file.


If you get stuck ...

  • Simply click on the Home icon   to be hyperlinked back to the Home page of the Concepts Library.

Screen Responsiveness

The pages of the Concept Library have been tested for mobile responsiveness.

The authors have determined the accuracies of the page renderings at both a portrait width of 360px and a landscape width of 640px.


Testing devices have included selections from the following list of devices ...

  • Amazon Kindle Fire HDX 7, 3rd Generation tablet

  • Virtual Galaxy S5 smartphone emulator

Kindle Tablets

On the Kindle tablet, both portrait and landscape renderings appear accurate.

Amazon Fire Phones

And, on the Amazon Fire phone, using automatic screen rotation, both portrait and landscape renderings appear accurate.

Foreign Language

The foreign language expression ¡Finito! can hold a translation from Spanish-To-English ...

Via the <title> tag.

Simply hover over the word in Spanish to reveal its English equivalent.

For example ...

Hovering over the Spanish phrase ¡Por ejemplo! reveals the English equivalent of "For Example".

Try it!


For an acronym to be visually effective when reading a line of text ...

The acronym must first be declared.

In addition, the acronym must stand out from the body of information.

To accomplish both of these objectives, the MMINAIL has selected Ashley Gold.

Ashley Gold

Ashley gold is a primary color within the registered Logo Badge of the Benefit corporation.

Whenever the end user spies a designated Acronym of Ashley Gold ...

Simply hover over the Acronym to reveal the underlying meaning embedded in the title element of the <abbr> tag.


The <abbr> tag can also be used to house Definitions as well as Acronyms.

As we have seen in the above referenced Ashley Gold definition ...

Whenever the end-user spies a designated Acronym or Definition of Ashley Gold color ...

Simply hover over the Acronym or Definition to reveal the underlying meaning embedded in the title element of the <abbr> tag.

Carriage Return

The carriage return, or ... ➡️

The carriage return is used extensively throughout the working repos of the Concept Library to prevent the overflow of raw code.

By preventing the overflow of raw code when rendering a code block, the view of the end-user avoids the slider effect.

And, by eliminating the slider effect, responsive views using other devices ie.) Kindle Fire HDX will maintain screen boundaries without overflow.

Site Monitoring

Note. The Http Headers of this repo are being monitored by Internet Supervision dot com.

Reproduction In Part

Most authors will allow for the reproduction of their works in part ...

When the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews is addressed.

As long as an appropriate citation is presented concurrent with the review, authors are generally receptive.

Therefore, please remember to provide a Link-back to the original author, or to the publisher of the original publication when citing.

Thank you for your consideration.

Got An Idea?

If you have an idea that will spruce this site up even better than it already is ...

Then, you know the drill ...

Simply go ahead and fork this repo, make your changes, and send us a pull request.

Coding Community

If you are an expert in your field of specialty ...

Why not fork our Concept Library and create a new Topic of your choosing, or embellish upon an existing Topic.

Pull Requests

Send us a Pull Request.

Our team of coders will review your contribution and get back to you with a "thumbs up" ( or, "thumbs down" ).

Can You Contribute Code?

As we can now decipher the time spent by our functions at the code block level ...

How much of your coding time are you willing to invest in this project?

As we rely heavily upon contributions from the coding community, your contribution of code will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you for your effort and participation in our program to code the globe!

Can You Contribute Cash?

If you have enjoyed and benefited from this article ...

Then, why not drop a little change in our digital bucket at the Square Up - Cash Me donation portal.

As we can now spend the equivalent of our grandparents' monthly mortgage payment at our local Sunday football games ...

How much of your spare cash are you willing to invest in this project?

Starving Coders

As we rely heavily upon contributions from the coding community, your contribution of cash will be greatly appreciated.

Note. Your donation will help us fund our Starving Coders initiative through our Medcoin™ Crypto Currency Division.

Can You Contribute Ether?

As we have witnessed the exponential growth of Bitcoin (BTC) from 9 cents USD per coin ...

To over $18,000 USD per coin over the past nine (9) years.

Plus, the recent explosion of Ripple (XRP) from less than one-penny to over $2 USD.

How much of your spare Ether ( ETH ) are you willing to invest in this project?

As we rely heavily upon contributions from the coding community, your contribution of ether will be greatly appreciated, as well.

Public Hash

Simply scan the following QR Code to extract our Coinbase public hash address to send Gifts O Wei in support of our Medcoin™ Crypto Currency Project.

QR Code - Coinbase - Bus Card

Note. The easiest and safest way to extract our public `ETH` hash-address is to point your smartphone at the `QR Code` shown and engage the `Sophos Intercept X QR Code Scanner`. From there you will be able to open the link safely via the `Sophos Intercept X Link Checker`.

No Warranty

Disclaimer. The author of this website has made every effort to ensure accuracy ...

However, the information contained in this website, and in its pages, is offered to the public without any warranty expressed or implied.

Therefore, the author of this website, and by extension its pages and content cannot be held liable for any damages that may be caused indirectly or directly by the software instructions or tutorials contained in the pages of this website.


The license and privacy policy pages ...

For further review, please see the License page and the Privacy Policy page of this website to clarify.

Copyright © 2000 - 2021

The Medical Marijuana Initiative of North America Small Registered MMINAIL™ Logo Badge Small Registered MMINAIL™ Logo Badge
- International Limited Small R-Reggae™ Trademark Symbol Logo Badge Small R-Reggae™ Trademark Symbol Logo Badge